Use of Facemask in COVID -19              Orient Journal of Medicine                      Vol 33[3-4] Jul-Dec, 2021

Use of Face Mask as a COVID-19 Preventive Measure Among Household Heads in Enugu Nigeria  
Elizabeth U NWONWU1,2
Edmund N OSSAI1,2
Ituma B ITUMA1,2
Ifeyinwa C AKAMIKE2

1Department of Community Medicine
Ebonyi State University Abakaliki
Ebonyi State, NIGERIA

2Department of Community Medicine
Alex Ekwueme Federal University
Teaching Hospital Abakaliki
Ebonyi State, NIGERIA

3State Ministry of Health Enugu
Enugu State, NIGERIA

Author for Correspondence
Chukwuma David UMEOKONKWO 
Department of Community Medicine
Alex Ekwueme Federal University
Teaching Hospital Abakaliki
Ebonyi State, NIGERIA

Phone: +234 806 044 1978
Email: <>

Received: March 24th, 2021
Accepted: April 20th, 2021

Conflict of interest of interest: None
Funding: None

Background: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease that can be transmitted from person to person through the respiratory droplets from an infected person and contacts. It is scientifically proven that covering mouth and nose with face mask prevents the spread of respiratory droplets produced by coughing and sneezing from an infected individual.
Objective: To evaluate the ownership and use of face mask as preventive practices against COVID-19 as well as factors affecting its use among adults in Enugu.
Methodology:  We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study among 320 heads of households selected by multi-stage sampling technique in Enugu metropolis, Enugu state, Nigeria. We collected information on ownership and use of face mask from 4th to 15th May 2020. Data entry and analysis were done using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences statistical software version 25. The proportion of household heads who own and used face mask was estimated and the factors associated with its use was explored using Chi square test at 5% level of significance.
Results: One hundred and six (33.1%) heads of households have and use face mask; 272 (85.0%) were planning to own a face mask and 309 (96.6%) were aware of government directive to use face mask. Overall, 314 (98.1%) of the heads of households were willing to wear face mask if it is available. Ownership and use of face mask was more among females (38.8%) compared to males (28.0%, p =0.04).
Conclusion:   Majority of respondents did not own or use a face mask but were willing to use one if made available. We therefore recommend that more efforts should be geared towards educating and sensitizing the public, particularly household heads, since they can play a role in ensuring that other family members adhere to the COVID-19 preventive measures.

Key words:
Non pharmaceutical measures, Surgical mask, Pandemic response, Enugu Metropolis