Pre- Analytical Errors                          Orient Journal of Medicine                              Vol 30 [1-2] Jan-June, 2018

Frequency of Pre-Analytical Errors in a Tertiary Hospital Clinical Laboratory, North-Central Nigeria
Hezekiah A ISA1
Peter Y JONAH2
Freeman D DANIEL3
Seljul M RAMYIL3
Olugbenga T OGUNDEKO4

1Department of Haematology
and Blood Transfusion
University of Abuja
2Dept. of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology
University of Abuja
3Dept. of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology
Bingham University
Jos Campus
4Dept. of Pharmacology
Bingham University
Jos Campus

Author for Correspondence
Dept. of Haematology and
Blood Transfusion
College of Health Sciences
University of Abuja Gwagwalada,

Phone: +231 805 439 9861
Received: July 7th, 2017
Accepted: September 10th, 2017

The authors have no competing interests and no financial support was received for this study
Background: The generation of accurate and reliable laboratory results is the main objective of any clinical laboratory service. The total testing process is broadly divided into pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical phases. There are several errors, both human and technical that can affect the quality of laboratory results at any phase of the total testing process. At the pre-analytical phase, errors could occur during filling of request forms, sampling, transportation and storage of samples.
Objective: To determine the frequency of the various pre-analytical errors that can affect the quality of laboratory results in Bingham University Teaching Hospital Jos, North Central Nigeria.
Methods: We examined request forms, specimen collection, transportation and storage from both out- and in-patients over a period of three months. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Research and Ethics Committee of the hospital.
Results: A total of 11,109 out-patient and 4,178 in-patient forms and specimens were examined. The most common errors recorded from the specimens for out-patients and in-patients were inadequate labeling (50.9% and 44.6%, respectively) and lack of collection time (54.1% and 46.4%, respectively). Other errors were late submission (40.9%) and lack of patient preparation (65.1%).
Conclusion: Errors were recorded in all activities involved in the pre-analytical phase with the most frequent ones being inadequate labeling of specimens, poor filling of request forms and lack of patient preparation. There is need to have regular trainings and/or seminars with healthcare stake holders involved in the pre-analytical phase of laboratory testing process with a view to improving the quality of laboratory results.

Key words: Reliable, Request Forms, Specimens, Transportation, Storage