Asymptomatic Proteinuria and High BP                Orient Journal of Medicine               Vol 29 [3-4] Jul-Dec, 2017

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Asymptomatic Proteinuria and Elevated Blood Pressure among Adolescents in Urban Secondary Schools of South-East Nigeria
Chijioke E EZEUDU1
John O CHUKWUKA1
Joy C EBENEBE1
Wilson C IGWE1
Ifeoma EGBUONU1
Nwaizu C AZUKA2


1Department of Paediatrics
Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka,
Nnewi Campus
Anambra State, NIGERIA


2Department of Paediatrics
Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Teaching Hospital
Nnewi Anambra State NIGERIA


Author for correspondence:
Dr Chijioke E EZEUDU
Department of Paediatrics
Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Awka, NIGERIA.


Phone: +234 803 509 1112
Email- ezeuducj@yahoo.com


Received: June 2
nd, 2017
Accepted: July 20
th, 2017


DICLOSURE
No conflict of interest
No funding
ABSTRACT

Background: Hypertension and proteinuria are known risk factors for cardiovascular disease and renal impairment. Early detection and treatment will reduce morbidity and mortality associated with them. Objective: To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic proteinuria with or without elevated blood pressure among secondary school adolescents in urban area of south-east Nigeria.
Methodology: This was a cross sectional study of 995 adolescents aged 10-19 years attending public and private secondary schools in Awka-South Local Government Area of Anambra state, south-east Nigeria. A multi-staged sampling method was used to select the subjects. All the participants had their urine examined for protein using the combo- 9 (Midi test) according to manufacturer’s specification. Their blood pressure was measured after at least five minutes of rest in seated position using mercury sphygmomanometer, (Accoson® DEKAMET, MK.3 England). Data was analysed using SPSS version 16, (Chicago Illinois, USA).
Result: A total of 995 adolescents were recruited and studied. They comprised of 475 (47.7%) males and 520 (52.3%) females, giving a male to female ratio of 1:1.1. Their ages ranged from 10-19 years with a mean of 14.6±2.0 years. Prevalence of hypertension was 6.2%. Thirty-eight females (7.3%) compared to twenty-four males (5.0%) had hypertension, but this was not statistically significant. (P-value =0.14) Ninety-six (9.6%) of all the subjects had protein in urine. Eighty-five had one plus (+), while 11 had two pluses (++) of protein.
Conclusion: Asymptomatic proteinuria and hypertension exist among secondary school adolescents. There is need for periodic screening and intervention programme.



Key words: Hypertension, Urine, Protein, Renal Impairment